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/ 2013-11-07

一、根据所采用的工质分类,通常分为氨压缩机和氟利昂压缩机两种。

1、根据压缩级数分类,有单级和双级压缩。单级压缩机是指压缩过程中制冷剂蒸气压缩过程从低压到高压只经过一次压缩。所谓的双级压缩,指的是压缩过程中制冷剂蒸气由低压到高压连续两次压缩。

2、根据作用方式分类,有单作用压缩机和双作用压缩机。其制冷剂蒸气仅在活塞的一侧进行压缩,活塞往返一个行程,吸气排气各一次。而双作用压缩机制冷剂蒸气轮流在活塞两侧的气缸内进行压缩,活塞往返一个行程,吸、排气各两次。所以同样大小的气缸,双作用压缩机的吸气量较单作用的大但是由于双作用压缩机的结构较复杂,因而大都是采用单作用压缩机。

3,根据制冷剂在气缸中的运动的分类,有直流和逆流式。所谓直流式是指制冷剂蒸气的运动从吸气到排气都沿同一个方向进行,而逆流式,吸气与排气时制冷剂蒸气的运动方向是相反的。从理论分析来看,直流式与逆流式相比,由于蒸气在气缸中温度及比容的变化较少,故直流式性能较好。但是由于直流式压缩机的进汽阀需装在活塞上,这样便相对增加了活塞的长度和重量,因而功的消耗就增加、检修也麻烦,所以生产的压缩机大都采用逆流式。

4、根据气缸的中心线的位置分类,有立式压缩机、卧式压缩机, V型,W型和S型压缩机等。立式压缩机气缸中心线呈垂直位置而卧式压缩机气缸中心线是水平的。V型、W型和S型是高速、多缸、现代型压缩机,其速度一般为9601440/分,气缸数目多为2468 四种,其中,字母表示气缸的排列形式。

二、活塞式制冷压缩机,根据其结构特点,可分为开启式,半封闭式和全封闭式三种。虽然构造各异,但也有许多共同之处,只是其结构特征不同。

1、开启式制冷压缩机的结构特征在于:压缩机的动力输入轴伸出机体外,通过联轴器或皮带轮与电动机联结,并在伸出处用轴封装置密封。氨压缩机和容量较大的氟利昂压缩机都采用这种结构形式。

2、半封闭制冷压缩机的结构特点是:压缩机和电动机共用一个主轴,安装在同一壳体,机壳是可拆式,其上开有各种工作孔用盖板密封。

3、全封闭制冷压缩机的结构:压缩机与电动机共用一个主轴,二者组装在一个焊接成型的密封罩壳中。压缩机具有结构紧凑,密封性能好,使用方便;振动小,噪音低,广泛应用于小型自动化制冷和空调装置中。

 

 

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